**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020**

Union Public Service Commission(UPSC) has released the syllabus for the COMBINED GEO-SCIENTIST EXAMINATION. Interested candidates can check their UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 below or by following the link.

UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 | Click Here |

**Syllabus**

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Geology : Paper-I**

**Section A. Physical geology and remote sensing**

Evolution of Earth; Earth’s internal structure; earthquakes and volcanoes; principles of geodesy, isostasy; weathering- processes and products; geomorphic landforms formed by action of rivers,

wind, glaciers, waves and groundwater; features of ocean floor; continental shelf, slope and rise;

concepts of landscape evolution; major geomorphic features of India- coastal, peninsular and extra

peninsular.

Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic bands in remote sensing; spectral signatures of soil,

rock, water and vegetation; thermal, near infra-red and microwave remote sensing; digital image

processing; LANDSAT, IRS and SPOT- characteristics and use; aerial photos- types, scale, parallax,

relief displacement; elements of image interpretation.

**Section B. Structural geology**

Principles of geological mapping; kinematic and dynamic analysis of deformation; stress-strain

relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous materials; measurement of strain in deformed rocks;

structural analysis of fold, cleavage, boudin, lineation, joint, and fault; stereographic projection of

linear and planar structures; superposed deformation; deformation at microscale- dynamic and

static recrystallisation, controls of strain rate and temperature on development of microfabrics;

brittle and ductile shear zones; time relationship between crystallization and deformation,

calculation of paleostress.

**Section C. Sedimentology**

Classification of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary textures-grain size, roundness, sphericity, shape

and fabric; quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and sediment

gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude number, grain entrainment,

Hjulstrom diagram, bed load and suspension load transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation structure; biogenic structures; principles and application of

paleocurrent analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone, limestone,

banded iron formation, mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis and dolomitisation;

sedimentary environments and facies-facies models for fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow

and deep marine environments; carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in

major tectonic settings; principles of sequence stratigraphy-concepts, and factors controlling base

level changes, parasequence, clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and sequence boundary.

**Section D. Paleontology**

Fossil record and geological time scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy;

body- and ichno-fossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacara Fauna; morphology and time

range of Graptolites, Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids

and Corals; evolutionary trends in Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods;

micropaleontology- methods of preparation of microfossils, morphology of microfossil groups

(Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen and dinoflagellates; Gondwana plant fossils and their significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae;

applications of paleontological data in stratigraphy, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology; mass

extinctions.

**Section E. Stratigraphy**

Principles of stratigraphy-code of stratigraphic nomenclature of India; lithostratigraphy,

biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation; characteristics of Archean granite-greenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution of Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand); Proterozoic mobile belts- Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain, Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt; Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy- Paleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch, Narmada Valley and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal basins, Garhwal-Shimla Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indian stratigraphy.

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Geology : Paper-II**

**Section A. Mineralogy**

Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; concept of unit cell and Bravais lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of

bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination polyhedra; crystal imperfections-defects, twinning and

zoning; polymorphism, pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of

minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of minerals- double

refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, sign of elongation, interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel group.

**Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology**

Chemical composition and characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere; geochemical

cycles; meteorites-types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements; fractionation of

elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient (compatible and incompatible elements),

Nernst-Berthelot partition coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and

activity composition relation (Roult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation; REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral stability. Half-life and decay equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium, uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry of carbon, oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite chemical dating. Section C. Igneous petrology Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of igneous textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary (albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopside-anorthite) and ternary (diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsterite-anorthite and nepheline-kalsilite-silica) phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, boninites, anorthosites and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and large igneous provinces of India.

**Section D. Metamorphic petrology**

Limits and physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock composition) of

metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies series, geothermal gradients and

tectonics of orogenic belts; structures, micro-structures and textures of regional and contact

metamorphic rocks; representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams);

equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb’s free

energy, chemical potential, fugacity, and activity; tracing the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase

rule and mineralogical phase rule in the multi-component system; Claussius-Clapeyron equation and

slopes of metamorphic reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat

conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluid-rock interactions;

charnockite problem, the formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive metamorphism of pelitic,

calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic setting.

**Section E. Geodynamics**

Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp, Vs and density; seismic and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and non-

Newtonian liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, sea floor spreading; gravity and magnetic anomalies of

ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and their origin; plate tectonics- types of plate

boundaries and their inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust.

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Hydrogeology**

**Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater**

Origin of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept, geologic formations as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater table mapping and piezometric nests; porosity, void ratio, effective porosity and representative porosity range; primary and secondary porosities; groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins; springs.

**Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics**

Groundwater flow concepts; Darcy’s Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water flow rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic conductivity and ranges in representative rocks; Bernoulli equation; determination of hydraulic conductivity in field and laboratory; concept of groundwater flow through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer thickness.

**Section C. Water wells and groundwater levels**

Unidirectional and radial flow to a well (steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries;

methods for constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells, pumping test,

slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in groundwater levels; stream flow and

groundwater flows; groundwater level fluctuations; land subsidence; impact of global climate change on groundwater.

**Section D. Groundwater exploration**

Surface investigation of groundwater- geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity and magnetic methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity logging, spontaneous potential logging, radiation logging.

**Section E. Groundwater quality and management**

Groundwater composition, units of expression, mass-balance calculations; rock-water interaction

(chemical equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions and cation/anion exchanges), graphic

representation of chemical data; groundwater hardness, microorganisms in groundwater; water

quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues due to urbanization; solid and liquid

waste disposal and plume migration models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater;

concepts of artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin

investigations and management practices.

**For the post of Scientist ‘B’(Geophysics)**

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Geophysics : Paper-I**

**PART-A**

**A1. Solid Earth Geophysics:**

Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin, characteristics of planets, Earth:

rotation and figure, Geoid, Spheroid and topography. Plate tectonics and Geodynamic processes,

Thermal history and heat flow, Temperature variation in the earth, convection currents. Gravity field of earth and Isostasy. Geomagnetism, elements of earth’s magnetism: Internal and External fields and their causes, Paleomagnetism, Polar wandering paths, Continental drift, Seafloor spreading and its geophysical evidences. Elastic Waves, Body Waves and internal structure of earth, variation of physical properties in the interior of earth, Adam-Williamson’s Equation.

**A2. Earthquake Seismology:**

Seismology, earthquakes, focal depth, epicenter, great Indian earthquakes, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, Elastic rebound theory, Types and Nature of faulting, Fault plane solutions, Seismicity and Seismotectonics of India, Frequency-Magnitude relation (b-values). Bulk and rigidity modulus, Lame’s Parameter, Seismic waves: types and their propagation characteristics, absorption, attenuation and dispersion. Seismic ray theory for spherically and horizontally stratified earth, basic principles of Seismic Tomography and receiver function analysis, Velocity structure, Vp/Vs studies, Seismic network and arrays, telemetry systems, Principle of electromagnetic seismograph, displacement meters, velocity meters, accelerometers, Broadband Seismometer, WWSSN stations, seismic arrays for detection of nuclear explosions.Earthquake prediction; dilatancy theory, short-, medium- and long- term predictions, Seismic microzonations, Applications for engineering problems.

**A3. Mathematical methods in Geophysics:**

Elements of vector analysis, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s

theorem, Gravitational field, Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravitation potential and fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes, Coulomb’s law, Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant,

Origin of Magnetic field, Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Geomagnetic fields, Magnetic fields due to different type of structures, Solution of Laplace equation in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates, Image theory, Electrical fields due to charge, point source, continuous charge distribution and double layers, equipotential and line of force. Current and potential in the earth, basic concept and equations of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s Equation, near and far fields, Attenuation of EM waves, EM field of a loops of wire on half space and multi-layered media.

**A4. Geophysical Inversion:**

Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition and its application to Geophysics. Probability,

Inversion with discrete and continuous models. Forward problems versus Inverse problems, direct

and model based inversions, Formulation of inverse problems, classification of inverse problems,

least square solutions and minimum norm solution, concept of norms, Jacobian matrix, Condition

number, Stability, non-uniqueness and resolution of inverse problems, concept of ‘a priori’

information, constrained linear least squares inversion, review of matrix theory. Models and data

spaces, data resolution matrix, model resolution matrix, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, singular value decomposition (SVD), Gauss Newton method, steepest descent (gradient) method, Marquardt- Levenberg method. Probabilistic approach of inverse problems, maximum likelihood and stochastic inverse methods, Random search inversion (Monte-Carlo) Backus-Gilbert method, Bayesian Theorem and Inversion. Global optimization techniques: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing methods.

**PART-B:**

**B1. Mathematical Methods of Physics:**

Dimensional analysis; Units and measurement; Vector algebra and vector calculus; Linear algebra,

Matrices: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second

order; Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre); Fourier series, Fourier and

Laplace transforms; Elementary probability theory, Random variables, Binomial, Poisson and normaldistributions; Green’s function; Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions); Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions, interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method; Tensors; Complex variables and analysis; Analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals; Beta and Gamma functions. Operators and their properties; Least-squares fitting.

**B2. Electrodynamics:**

Electrostatics: Gauss’ Law and its applications; Laplace and Poisson equations, Boundary value

problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s theorem; Ampere’s circuital law; Magnetic

vector potential; Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction; Electromagnetic vector and scalar

potentials; Uniqueness of electromagnetic potentials and concept of gauge: Lorentz and Coulomb

gauges; Lorentz force; Charged particles in uniform and non-uniform electric and magnetic fields;

Poynting theorem; Electromagnetic fields from Lienard-Wiechert potential of a moving charge;

Bremsstrahlung radiation; Cerenkov radiation; Radiation due to oscillatory electric dipole; Condition for plasma existence; Occurrence of plasma; Magnetohydrodynamics; Plasma waves; Transformation of electromagnetic potentials; Lorentz condition; Invariance or covariance of Maxwell field equations in terms of 4 vectors; Electromagnetic field tensor; Lorentz transformation of electric and magnetic fields.

**B3. Electromagnetic Theory:**

Maxwell’s equations: its differential and integral forms, physical significance; Displacement current; Boundary conditions; Wave equation, Plane electromagnetic waves in: free space, non-conducting isotropic medium, conducting medium; Scalar and vector potentials; Reflection; refraction of electromagnetic waves; Fresnel’s Law; interference; coherence; diffraction and polarization; Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s equations; Transmission lines and waveguides.

**B4. Introductory Atmospheric and Space Physics:**

The neutral atmosphere; Atmospheric nomenclature; Height profile of atmosphere; Hydrostatic

equation; Geopotential height; Expansion and contraction; Fundamental forces in the atmosphere;

Apparent forces; Atmospheric composition; Solar radiation interaction with the neutral atmosphere; Climate change; Electromagnetic radiation and propagation of Waves: EM Radiation; Effects of environment; Antennas: basic considerations, types. Propagation of waves: ground wave, sky wave, and space wave propagation; troposcatter communication and extra terrestrial communication; The Ionosphere; Morphology of ionosphere: the D, E and F-regions; Chemistry of the ionosphere Ionospheric parameters E and F region anomalies and irregularities in the ionosphere; Global Positioning Systems (GPS): overview of GPS system, augmentation services GPS system segment; GPS signal characteristics; GPS errors; multi path effects; GPS performance; Satellite navigation system and applications.

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Geophysics : Paper-II**

**PART-A**

**A1. Potential Field (Gravity and Magnetic) Methods:**

Geophysical potential fields, Inverse square law, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Global gravity anomalies, Newtonian and logarithmic potential, Laplace’s equations for potential field.

Green’s Function, Concept of gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors controlling rock densities,

determination of density, Earth’s main magnetic field, origin, diurnal and secular variations of the

field, Geomagnetic elements, intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential and its

relation to field, units of measurement, interrelationship between different components of magnetic fields, Poisson’s relation, Magnetic susceptibility, factors controlling susceptibility. Magnetic Mineralogy: Hysteresis, rock magnetism, natural, and remnant magnetization, demagnetization effects. Principles of Gravity and Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting gravity and magnetic surveys, Gravity and Magnetic data reduction, Gravity bases, International Gravity formula, IGRF corrections. Concept of regional and residual anomalies and various methods of their separation, Edge Enhancement Techniques (Derivatives, Continuation, Analytical Signal, Reduced to Pole and Euler Deconvolution), ambiguity in potential field interpretation, Factors affecting magnetic anomalies, Application of gravity and magnetics in geodynamic, mineral exploration and environmental studies. Qualitative interpretation, Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies due to different geometry shaped bodies and modeling.

**A2. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods:**

Electrical properties of rocks and minerals, concepts and assumptions of horizontally stratified

earth, anisotropy and its effects on electrical fields, geoelectric and geological sections, D.C

Resistivity method. Concept of natural electric field, various electrode configurations, Profiling and

Sounding (VES). Tpes of Sounding curves, Equivalence and Suppression, Concept of Electrical

Resistivity Tomography (ERT). SP Method:, Origin of SP, application of SP surveys. Induced

Polarization (IP) Method: Origin of IP, Membrane and Electrode polarization, time and frequency

domains of measurement, chargeability, percent frequency effect and metal factor, Application of IP surveys for mineral exploration. Electromagnetic methods, Passive and Active source methods,

Diffusion equation, wave equation and damped wave equation used in EM method, boundary

conditions, skin depth, depth of investigation and depth of penetration, amplitude and phase

relations, real and imaginary components, elliptical polarization, Principles of EM prospecting, various EM methods: Dip angle, Turam, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram), AFMAG, and VLF.. Principles of Time Domain EM: INPUT method. EM Profiling and sounding, Interpretation of EM anomalies. Principle of EM scale modeling. Magnetotelluric methods: Origin and characteristics of MT fields, Instrumentation, Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Modes, Static Shift. Dimensionality and Directionality analysis. Field Layout and interpretation of MT data and its applications. Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).

**A3. Seismic Prospecting:**

Basic principles of seismic methods, Various factors affecting seismic velocities in rocks, Reflection,

refraction and Energy partitioning at an interface, Geometrical spreading, Reflection and refraction

of wave phenomena in a layered and dipping media. Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Multi

channel seismic (CDP) data acquisition (2D and 3D), sources of energy, Geophones, geometry of

arrays, different spread geometry, Instrumentation, digital recording. Different types of multiples,

Travel time curves, corrections, Interpretation of data, bright spot, low velocity layer, Data

processing, static and dynamic (NMO and DMO) corrections, shot-receiver gather, foldage,

multiplexing and demultiplexing. Dix’s equation, Velocities: Interval, Average and RMS, Seismic

resolution and Fresnel Zone, Velocity analysis and Migration techniques, Seismic Interpretation,

Time and Depth Section, Fundamentals of VSP method, High Resolution Seismic Surveys (HRSS).

**A4. Borehole Geophysics:**

Objectives of well logging, concepts of borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of

reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their relationships-formation factor, porosity,

permeability, formation water resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Arhcie’s and Humble’s equations; principles, instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations of various geophysical logs: SP, resistivity and micro resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, sonic, temperature, caliper and directional logs. Production logging, overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation lithology, porosity, permeability and oil-water saturation, sub-surface correlation and mapping,delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon, groundwater, coal, metallic and non-metallic mineral exploration.

**PART-B**

**B1. Classical Mechanics**

Inertial and non-inertial frames, Newton’s laws; Pseudo forces; Central force motion; Two-body

collisions, Scattering in laboratory and centre-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, Moment of

inertia, Variational principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion;

Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, Invariance and conservation laws,

Cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, Small oscillations and normal modes; Special theory of

relativity, Lorentz transformations, Relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.

**B2. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics**

Laws of thermodynamics and their significance; Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations;

Chemical potential, Phase equilibria; Phase space, Micro- and macro- states; Micro canonical,

canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions; Free Energy and connection with thermodynamic quantities; First and second order phase transitions; Maxwell-Boltzmann

distribution, Quantum statistics, Ideal Fermi and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance;

Blackbody radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; Random walk and

Brownian motion; Diffusion equation.

**B3. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Characterization of materials**

Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of

Hydrogen, Helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift; Width of spectral lines; LS and JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen Back and Stark effects; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; Frank- Condon principle; Thermal and optical properties of materials, Study of microstructure using SEM, Study of crystal structure using TEM, Resonance methods: Spin and applied magnetic field, Larmor precession, relaxation times – spin-spin relaxation, Spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin resonance, g factor, Nuclear Magnetic resonance, line width, Motional narrowing, Hyperfine splitting; Nuclear Gamma Resonance: Principles of Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption, Isomer Shift, Quadrupole splitting.

**B4. Nuclear and Particle Physics**

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, Packing

fraction, Semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and fusion, Nuclear reactor; Line of stability, Characteristics of the nuclear forces, Nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure, Single-particle shell model and, its validity and limitations; Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules; Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei and direct reactions; Classification of fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons, mesons, leptons); Spin and parity assignments, strangeness; Gell Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P and T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions, Parity non-conservation in weak interaction; Relativistic kinematics.

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Geophysics : Paper-III**

**PART-A**

**A1. Radiometric and Airborne Geophysics:**

Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay processes, units, radioactivity of rocks and minerals,

Instruments, Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter, Gamma ray spectrometer,

Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications), beach placers,

titanium, zirconium and rare-earths, radon studies in seismology and environmental applications.

Airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric), planning of

surveys, flight path recovery methods. Applications in geological mapping, identification of structural features and altered zones.

**A2. Marine Geophysics:**

Salinity, temperature and density of sea water. Introduction to Sea-floor features: Physiography,

divisions of sea floor, continental shelves, slopes, and abyssal plains, growth and decline of ocean

basins, turbidity currents, occurrence of mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore.

Geophysical surveys and instrumentation: Gravity, Magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, Sonobuoy surveys, Instrumentation used in ship borne surveys, towing cable and fish, data collection and survey procedures, corrections and interpretation of data. Oceanic magnetic anomalies, Vine- Mathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and dating sea floor, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges, basins, marginal basins, rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Pinger, Boomer, Sparker, Air gun, Hydrophones and steamer cabling. Data reduction and interpretation. Ocean Bottom Seismic surveys. Bathymetry, echo sounding, bathymetric charts, sea bed mapping. Navigation and Position fixing methods.

**A3. Geophysical Signal Processing:**

Time Series, Types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series of periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its properties, Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Hilbert Transform, Convolution and Deconvolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function. Time domain windows, Z transform and properties, Inverse Z transform. Poles and zeroes. Principles of digital filters, types of filters: recursive, non recursive, time invariant, Chebyshev, Butterworth, moving average, amplitude and phase response of filters, low pass, band pass and high pass filters. Processing of Random signals. Improvement of signal to noise ratio, source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as low pass filter.

**A4. Remote Sensing and Geohydrology:**

Fundamental concepts of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation spectrum, Interaction of

electromagnetic energy and its interactions in atmosphere and surface of the earth, elements of

photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false color composites, remote sensing platforms,

flight planning, geosynchronous and sun synchronous orbits, sensors, resolution, parallax and

vertical exaggeration, relief displacement, mosaic, aerial photo interpretation and geological

application. Fundamentals of photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners,

thermal scanners, microwave remote sensing, fundamental of image processing and interpretation

for geological applications. Types of water bearing formations, porosity, permeability, storage

coefficient, specific storage, specific retention, specific yield, Different types of aquifers, vertical

distribution of ground water, General flow equation; steady and unsteady flow of ground water in

unconfined and confined aquifers.

**PART-B**

**B1. Solid State Physics and Basic Electronics**

Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, Space groups; Methods of

determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, Scanning and transmission electron

microscopes; Band theory of solids, conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, Specific heat: Einstein’s and Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferro; Elements of superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.

Semiconductor devices and circuits: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors; Devices and structures

(p-n junctions, diodes, transistors, FET, JFET and MOSFET, homo and hetero junction transistors,

thermistors), Device characteristics, Frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic

devices (solar cells, photo detectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers and their applications.

**B2. Laser systems**

Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. Coherence, Light amplification and relation

between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate equations for three and four level systems. Lasers: Ruby, Nd-YAG, CO2, Dye, Excimer, Semiconductor. Laser cavity modes, Line shape function and full width at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler broadening; Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal and transverse modes. Mode selection, ABCD matrices and cavity stability criteria for confocal resonators. Quality factor, Expression for intensity for modes oscillating at random and mode-locked in phase. Methods of Q-switching and mode locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics.

**B3. Digital electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications**

Digital techniques and applications: Boolean identities, de Morgan’s theorems, Logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits: registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor: basics and architecture; Microcontroller basics. Combination and

sequential logic circuits, Functional diagram, Timing diagram of read and write cycle, Data transfer

techniques: serial and parallel. Fundamentals of digital computers. Radar systems, Signal and dats processing, Surveillance radar, Tracking radar, Radar antenna parameters. Fundamentals of

satellite systems, Communication and Orbiting satellites, Satellite frequency bands, Satellite orbit

and inclinations. Earth station technology.

**B4. Quantum Mechanics**

Wave-particle duality; Wave functions in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Schrodinger’s wave equation (time-dependent and time-independent); Eigenvalue problems: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, tunneling through a 1-D barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular momentum; Addition of angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Matrix representation; Dirac’s bra and ket notations; Time-independent perturbation theory and applications; Variational method; WKB approximation; Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi’s Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical theory of radiation; Elementary theory of scattering, Phase shifts, Partial waves, Born approximation; Identical particles, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein Gordon and Dirac equations.

**For the posts of Chemist and Scientist ‘B’(Chemical)**

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Chemistry : Paper-I (Inorganic Chemistry)**

**1. Inorganic solids:**

Defects, non-stoichiometric compounds and solid solutions, atom and ion diffusion, solid

electrolytes. Synthesis of materials, monoxides of 3d-metals, higher oxides, complex oxides

(corundrum, ReO3, spinel, pervoskites), framework structures (phosphates, aluminophosphates,

silicates, zeolites), nitrides and fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry, semiconductors,

molecular materials.

**2. Chemistry of coordination compounds:**

Isomerism, reactivity and stability: Determination of configuration of cis- and trans- isomers by

chemical methods. Labile and inert complexes, substitution reactions on square planar complexes,

trans effect. Stability constants of coordination compounds and their importance in inorganic

analysis.

Structure and bonding: Elementary Crystal Field Theory: splitting of dn configurations in

octahedral, square planar and tetrahedral fields, crystal field stabilization energy, pairing energy.

Jahn-Teller distortion. Metal-ligand bonding, sigma and pi bonding in octahedral complexes and

their effects on the oxidation states of transition metals. Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin

only moments and their correlation with effective magnetic moments, d-d transitions; LS coupling,

spectroscopic ground states, selection rules for electronic spectral transitions; spectrochemical

series of ligands, charge transfer spectra.

**3. Acid base titrations:**

Titration curves for strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base and weak base-strong acid titrations, polyprotic acids, poly-equivalent bases, determining the equivalence point: theory of acid- base indicators, pH change range of indicator, selection of proper indicator. Principles used in estimation of mixtures of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry).

**4. Gravimetric Analysis:**

General principles: Solubility, solubility product and common ion effect, effect of temperature on the solubility; Salt hydrolysis, hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis. Stoichiometry, calculation of results from gravimetric data. Properties of precipitates. Nucleation and crystal growth, factors influencing completion of precipitation. Co-precipitation and post-precipitation, purification and washing of precipitates. Precipitation from homogeneous solution. A few common gravimetric estimations: chloride as silver chloride, sulphate as barium sulphate,

aluminium as oxinate and nickel as dimethyl glyoximate.

**5. Redox Titrations:**

Standard redox potentials, Nernst equation. Influence of complex formation, precipitation and

change of pH on redox potentials, Normal Hydrogen Electrode (NHE). Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence point, redox indicators. Redox potentials and their applications. Principles behind Iodometry, permanganometry, dichrometry, difference between iodometry and iodimetry. Principles of estimation of iron, copper, manganese, chromium by redox titration.

**6. Complexometric titrations:**

Complex formation reactions, stability of complexes, stepwise formation constants, chelating agents.

EDTA: acidic properties, complexes with metal ions, equilibrium calculations involving EDTA,

conditional formation constants, derivation of EDTA titration curves, effect of other complexing

agents, factors affecting the shape of titration curves: indicators for EDTA titrations, titration

methods employing EDTA: direct, back and displacement titrations, indirect determinations,

titration of mixtures, selectivity, masking and demasking agents. Typical applications of EDTA

titrations: hardness of water, magnesium and aluminium in antacids, magnesium, manganese and

zinc in a mixture, titrations involving unidentate ligands: titration of chloride with Hg2+ and cyanide with Ag+.

**7. Organometallic compounds:**

18-electron rule and its applications to carbonyls and nature of bonding involved therein. Simple

examples of metal-metal bonded compounds and metal clusters. Wilkinson’s catalyst.

**8. Nuclear chemistry:**

Radioactive decay- General characteristics, decay kinetics, parent-daughter decay growth

relationships, determination of half-lives. Nuclear stability. Decay theories. Unit of radioactivity.

Preparation of artificial radionuclides by bombardment, radiochemical separation techniques.

Experimental techniques in the assay of radioisotopes, Geiger-Muller counters. Solid state detectors.

**9. Chemistry of d- and f-block elements:**

d-block elements: General comparison of 3d, 4d and 5d elements in terms of electronic

configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, atomization energy, oxidation states, redox

properties, coordination chemistry, spectral and magnetic properties.

f-block elements: Electronic configuration, ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, variation in

atomic and ionic (3+) radii, magnetic and spectral properties of lanthanides, separation of

lanthanides (by ion-exchange method).

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type)**

**Chemistry : Paper-II (Physical Chemistry)**

**1. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:**

Real gases, Deviation of gases from ideal behaviour; compressibility factor; van der Waals equation

of state and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state. Critical constants in terms of van

der Waals constants. Law of corresponding states and significance of second virial coefficient. Boyle

temperature.

2. **Solids**:

Nature of solid state. Band theory of solids: Qualitative idea of band theory, conducting,

semiconducting and insulating properties. Law of constancy of angles, concept of unit cell, different crystal systems, Bravais lattices, law of rational indices, Miller indices, symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law.

**3. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:**

Chemical potential in terms of Gibbs energy and other thermodynamic state functions and its

variation with temperature and pressure. Gibbs-Duhem equation; fugacity of gases and fugacity

coefficient. Thermodynamic conditions for equilibrium, degree of advancement. vant Hoff’s reaction isotherm. Equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy change. Definitions of KP, KC and Kx; vant Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochore. Activity and activity coefficients of electrolytes / ions in solution. Debye-Hückel limiting law.

**4. Chemical kinetics and catalysis:**

Second order reactions. Determination of order of reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions.

Temperature dependence of reaction rate, energy of activation. Collision Theory and Transition State Theory of reaction rates. Enthalpy of activation, entropy of activation, effect of dielectric constant and ionic strength on reaction rate, kinetic isotope effect.

Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption

isotherms, BET equation, surface area determination; colloids, electrical double layer and colloid

stability, electrokinetic phenomenon. Elementary ideas about soaps and detergents, micelles,

emulsions.

**5. Electrochemistry:**

Types of electrochemical cells, cell reactions, emf and Nernst equation, ᐃG, ᐃH and ᐃS of cell

reactions. Cell diagrams and IUPAC conventions. Standard cells. Half-cells / electrodes, types of

reversible electrodes. Standard electrode potential and principles of its determination. Concentration cells. Determination of ᐃGo, Ko, Ksp and pH. Basic principles of pH metric and potentiometric titrations, determination of equivalence point and pKa values.

**6. Quantum chemistry:**

Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Uncertainty relation, Expectation value. Hermitian operators.

Schrödinger time-independent equation: nature of the equation, acceptability conditions imposed on the wave functions and probability interpretation of wave function. Schrödinger equation for particle in a one-dimensional box and its solution. Comparison with free particle eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle in a 3-D box and concept of degeneracy.

**7. Basic principles and applications of spectroscopy:**

Electromagnetic radiation, interaction with atoms and molecules and quantization of different forms of energies. Units of frequency, wavelength and wavenumber. Condition of resonance and energy of absorption for various types of spectra; origin of atomic spectra, spectrum of hydrogen atom. Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotor model, selection rules, spectrum,

characteristic features of spectral lines. Determination of bond length, effect of isotopic substitution.

Vibrational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Simple Harmonic Oscillator model, selection

rules and vibration spectra. Molecular vibrations, factors influencing vibrational frequencies.

Overtones, anharmonicity, normal mode analysis of polyatomic molecules, Raman Effect: Characteristic features and conditions of Raman activity with suitable illustrations.

Rotational and vibrational Raman spectra.

**8. Photochemistry:**

Franck-Condon principle and vibrational structure of electronic spectra. Bond dissociation and principle of determination of dissociation energy. Decay of excited states by radiative and non-

radiative paths. Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram. Laws of photochemistry: Grotthus-Draper law, Stark-Einstein law of photochemical equivalence; quantum yield and its

measurement for a photochemical process, actinometry. Photostationary state. Photosensitized

reactions. Kinetics of HI decomposition, H2-Br2 reaction, dimerisation of anthracene.

**UPSC CGS Syllabus 2020 for Stage-II (Descriptive Type) **

**Chemistry : Paper-III (Analytical and Organic)**

**PART-A (Analytical Chemistry)**

A1. Errors in quantitative analysis:

Accuracy and precision, sensitivity, specific standard deviation in analysis, classification of errors

and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test,

control chart, sampling methods, sampling errors, standard reference materials, statistical data

treatment.

**A2. Separation Methods:**

Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of chromatography (partition, adsorption and ion

exchange), column chromatography, plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed phase concept, thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ion-exchange chromatography. Solvent extraction: Classification, principle and efficiency of the technique, mechanism of extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation, qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent extraction, extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions.

**A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:**

Lambert-Beer’s Law and its limitations. UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Instrumentation consisting of source, monochromator, grating and detector, spectrophotometric determinations (estimation of metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of composition of metal complexes using Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio method).

Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator and

detector) for single and double beam instruments, sampling techniques.

Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice

of source, monochromator, detector, choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization

and sample introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical interferences and

methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level metal ions. Basic

principles and theory of AAS. Three different modes of AAS – Flame-AAS, VG-AAS, and GF-AAS.

Single beam and double beam AAS. Function of Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode

Discharge Lamp (EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative

analysis.

**A4. Thermal methods of analysis:**

Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative

analysis of Ca and Mg compounds.

**A5. X-ray methods of Analysis:**

Introduction, theory of X-ray generation, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray

fluorescence methods, instrumentation and applications. Qualitative and quantitative

measurements. Powder diffraction method.

**A6. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy:**

Theory and principles, plasma generation, utility of peristaltic pump, sampler–skimmer systems, ion lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode / solid state detector, different types of interferences-

spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences, applications.

**A7. Analysis of geological materials:**

Analysis of minerals and ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2 in bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu and Zn in brass (ii) Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze (iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’.

Introduction to petroleum: constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum products: specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, colour determination, cloud point,pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base numbers), ash content,Determination of lead in petroleum.Types of coal and coke, composition, preparation of sample for proximate and ultimate analysis,calorific value by bomb calorimetry.

**PART B (Organic chemistry)**

B1. Unstable, uncharged intermediates: Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann, Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schimdt,).

**B2. Addition reactions:**

Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals (polymerization reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polymerization, polyurethane, and conducting polymers; addition to conjugated systems (Diels-Alder reaction), orientation and reactivity (on simple cis- and trans- alkenes). Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O double bond, structure and reactivity, hydration, addition of ROH, RSH, CN-, bisulphite, amine derivatives, hydride ions.

**B3: Reactions at the carbonyl group:**

Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Mannich, Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner, Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions. B4. Oxidation and Reduction: Reduction of C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner and Birch reduction. Oxidation of C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis, epoxidation, Sharpless epoxidation.

**B5. Electrocyclic Reactions:**

Molecular orbital symmetry, frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, allyl system, FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, Woodward-Hoffman correlation diagram method and perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) approach for the explanation of pericyclic reactions under thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions.

Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of (4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis on [2+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions, sigmatropic rearrangements- shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope,

Sommerlet-Hauser rearrangement.

**B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:**

Infrared spectroscopy: Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and the interpretation of spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D, C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors affecting stretching frequencies.

Ultraviolet spectroscopy: Chromophores, auxochromes. Electronic transitions (σ−σ*, n-σ*, π-π*and n-π*), relative positions of λmax considering a conjugative effect, steric effect, solvent effect, redshift (bathochromic shift), blue shift (hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect (typical examples). Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated dienes, trienes, unsaturated carbonyl compounds, and aromatic compounds.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry: (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR) Nuclear spin, NMR active nuclei, the principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons. Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding / deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield shifts, intensity of NMR signals and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin coupling to 13C IH-IH first order coupling: some simple I H-I H splitting patterns: the magnitude of IH-IH coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy. Mass spectrometry: Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope abundances; the molecular ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement.

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